How did Tehran become the capital?
According to most historians, the Qajar was originally a clan of the Mughal race, which, along with Changiz and his successors, came to Islamic countries of the time, in Iran, Shams, and especially around Armenia. This tribe was formed during the formation of the Safavid dynasty with the help of Shah Isma’il Safavi, the founder of this hierarchy. Fifty years later, during the reign of Shah Abbas I, the so-called “Major”, the fifth king of the Safavid dynasty, the Qajar, based on his military-political objectives, moved from his original place to various places, and over time, those Qajars In order to prevent Turkmen abductions in Astarabad and Gorgan, in the late Safavid era, power and shakat were found very well, and the abysmal Soran in the emergence of “Nader”, which was the genius of his age, played a significant role in his arrogant army, and the government Estadabad and Gorgan were also usually in the hands of tribal elders. Nader, who at the end of his life suffered from insanity, after two decades of reign, and all of the conquests of appearance beyond the borders of Iran, eventually were killed by the leaders of Qizilbash, who were commanders of his army, and With his death, which occurred 257 years ago, once again the Khan’s claim to the monarchy and tribal elders and tribesmen came to the throne to seize the throne. In ancient times, the reign of the kingdom was always accompanied by riots and massacres and bloody wars. Blood was thrown down and the house was thrown up, and the oppressed nation was always the power of the conflicts of power to go to the wrong and another oppressor to sit in his place. “Nader”, who was killed, hit the rivals. The bloody wars of the claimants of the monarchy lasted eleven years, and in the end there were not more two defenders of the throne claimants, one of the two “Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, the father of Aqa Muhammad Khan, the Qajar dynasty, who was on the coast Caspian and northern Iran to Isfahan, and the other was Karim Khan Zand that dominated Persia and part of Western Iran. But the dedication was such that Mohammad Hassan Khan was killed by his own people, despite the bright conquests that he had made. Ghajar, after killing his father, flew from the fears of family enemies who intended to die to the “Yamot desert” and fled to the Turkmens and after four years he was taken to the court of Karim Khan after being dumped and displaced. And Khan Zand supported him and took him to Shiraz. “Agha Muhammad Khan Qa’jar”, who had been kidnapped in his childhood by his father’s enemies, was held hostage at the court of Karim Khan until the hours of his life, “Khan Zand” One of the women of the shrine who was related to him was informed about the imminent death of Khan Zand, he made a timely decision, did not wait for the death of Karim Khan, considered Khan dead, and met with several Qajar leaders who, like himself, were hostage to the Karimkhan court Without knowing Shiraz, he fled to the village of “Tehran”, the same village that was destined to be the new capital of Iran. This happened in 1193 AH, 225 years ago.
Tehran in the distant past
“Tehran”, before Islam and after that, followed the “Rey” and “Rey” from the great and authentic eastern lands has been the name “Tehran” in ancient Islamic texts in translation One of the great mystics named “Muhammad ibn Abu Abdullah Hafez Tehrani Razi” we see. This work dates back to 1157 years ago, and this is because of the fact that at that time there was a village called “Tehran” and it was considered a suburb of “Rei”. In Ibn Balkhi, which dates back to the years 500-510 AH 918 years ago. From “Tehran” for its good pomegranates. Although not mentioned in ancient written works of Tehran before Islam, but the archaeological excavations of 1321 in the Shamiran village show that in this region, in the second millennium BC, civilized people live Have. Also, other excavations carried out at Ghaytrieh Highlands 28 years ago indicate that this area was a civilized civilization for three thousand years ago, and the same studies show that “Tehran” in the ages before Islam was religious in the region, and the Zoroastrian religion has flourished in this region. Also, the worship of the “Mehr” and the “Indulgence” ritual has also become widespread in the vast plain of Tehran.
In the old texts, the “Oudlajan” and “Kalal Square”, “Market” and “Sanglan” neighborhoods have been used as the oldest “Old Tehran”. Also, the study of these texts suggests that the people of the village “Dilab” and “Tehran” were following the Sunni religions and the people of the Shaikh and Zaidi religions “Vanak” and “Farahzad”. In the book of works of al-Balad, Qazvin Zakaria, which dates back to 674 AH (744 years ago), there are interesting information about the people of this village. In this book, “Tehrani” are a stubborn people who do not pay. And the militant have been described. It is also stated that “Tehran” has two neighborhoods and people from each neighborhood with another neighborhood are in conflict and do not give the king a tribute, their houses are also underground. This point is also mentioned in the book by Moamim al-Baladan, which reads: “We saw the houses that were made of everything under the ground, and the path through the doors reaching the houses, eventually dark And the passageway, it does this to prevent the night invasion and the looting of the troops, and, whenever the houses were not, no one would remain there. »
The day Tehran became the capital of Iran
Although the choice of Tehran as the capital of Iran today is considered by the experts of the environment as a major and unforgivable mistake, the day when Mr. Mohammad Khan made the small village a base for the establishment of the Qajar government, he made a decisive, definitive and decisive decision. Because the military-geographic position of Tehran was such that behind its head in the north, the agile Qajar riders listened and under the control of central and southern Iran, the most important claimants of the monarchy were preparing the bloodiest battles. In a situation where Meluk al-Tawawi and Khankhani split Iran into a corner of every corner of the house, he claimed reign, the main factor in the choice of the capital was the military-geographic position, and Tehran could have been the place where Mr. Mohammed Khan wanted the center of gravity of the new monarchy and the military headquarters of Khan Qajar. It was a time for vampires. How many years later, more than the death of Nader, another vampire, which, of course, had a military genius, had met in order to destroy what was rare in the possibility of ruining, he destroyed and killed innocent people who had not returned to the rare times. He pours out his blood, he slips away from the tail, and drops the house and builds the head.
In the West, French Republicans had come to power. “Bonaparte” was on the brink of a few other Sabbaths, sweeping the world to the soil and blood; with the successor of this “Khaje the crowned”, a friendship project, a wonderful ambassador to his court, numerous gifts, military advisers The arms and the leaves of the leaves, and in the heat of battle, the half-way fellow, to leave Iran alone, to turn the Iranian nation into the hands of the Russian and the British, and to make such a burden on the innocent people that until the “Islamic Revolution” “Do not land. Tehran was practically the capital and military headquarters of Khajeh Tajdar due to its very favorable conditions. But what was and what was Tehran? nothing ! A village with ten fifteen thousand people. There was not a palace to deserve a king, nor a hostel that preserved the reputation of the crown prince in front of the kings and rulers of the world.
Thousands of years before Khawaja crowned Tehran as its capital, on the orders of Shah Tahmasb I Safavid, the son of Shah Ismail, the founder of this dynasty, they took a ghost around this, and this had no reason except that the capital of Shah Tahmasb was first in Qazvin. And since he often came to the pilgrimage of’Abd al-Aziz (AS), he wanted to have a rest near the holy shrine. Historians wrote that “Shah Tahmasb commanded in the year 961 AH to build a barrage around Tehran. The distance of this barrow was six thousand steps. And also, Shah Tahmasb ordered the number of surahs of the Holy Quran to create 114 towers in this barrow, and in each tower a sura will be carved from the surahs of the Holy Qur’an. Also, according to the order of Shah Tahmasb Safavid, they constructed four gates for Tehran, located on the four sides of the world (from the north to the artillery and Sepah streets, to the south of Molavi, east to Rey Street, and west to Vahdat-e-Islami street) Shapur), and floating away from it, and built their land, castles and towers. Because the mud of the gullies was not sufficient for the construction of the tower, it was excavated from two neighborhoods of the city. From the same time, these two places became famous as “Chal Square” and “Chal Hesar”. »
The northern part of Tehran has apparently been devoted to kings, elders and elders from the past, and this is the area where Tehran’s market and Golestan Palace are located. In a place where the Qajar kings later built royal palaces and Golestan palaces, they were previously constructed on the orders of Shah Abbas Bhaghi, known as “Chahar Rabbi” and its old planes known as Shah Abbasi.
This was the situation in Tehran when Aqa Muhammad Khan came to the city, but in the first decade of his reign, Tehran was significantly expanded. Massoumi Olivier, a French politician and physician who came to Tehran on the eve of the advent of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, describes the new capital of Iran: “Tehran is well and well paved, well-irrigated, is located . Damavand Peak, which is about ten farsakh in the eastern direction of Tehran, is higher than all peaks of this dynasty, and always and in all seasons is covered with snow, and sometimes smoke comes out of its summit. The people’s opinion is that the spirit of one of the evil sultans in this mountain is tormented by Iran. ”
Petrudulawala, who in 1618 AD (1028 AH) from Tehran, wrote: “This is a vast and large village, but it has a small population. Most neighborhoods of this city are gardens that have fruit trees. All streets are streams of water and are covered with shadows of plantain trees, which is why this city is called “Chenar city”. Other than that, there was nothing to say about this city. ”
During the reign of the Safavid dynasty, the city of Tehran has not been very well-known, and the small population that they inhabited has not become famous for this city. Tehran has no advantage, except that its lands are wide and fertile and well irrigated. The people of Tehran were farmers and farmers, and their land products, other than wheat and barley, were nothing else. Of course, because they had flocks, they also made wool, and all this wool was carried to Qazvin and Qom. In the Afghan invasion, Afghan invaders were killed and slaughtered in Tehran and ruined the city on the pretext that they had opened the gate of the city late.
Rehabilitation of Tehran at the time of Khajeh Tajard
“Messi Olivier” in his notes after pointing to the historical records of Tehran and the Safavid buildings and the destruction and destruction of these buildings in Afghan sedition, writes:
“Mr. Mohammad Shah, who put his capital in this city, built a good caravanserai and places of high quality. As Tehran nowadays is considered the best city in Iran. The Ark and the Shah’s mansion have the greatness and goodness of the mansion and ornament of the garden and the abundance of water. This ark is located on the north side of the city, and is about a quarter to a large city, and like a square itself, with a long, wide, Deep, safe and secure, and all this fence is made of flowers. The city fence, as it was said, is a square and is more distant than two miles (1600 m each), but not as small as half its inside. The gardens are full of fruit trees in it, and in the middle of each side of the rainforest, they have built a gate which, when necessary and enclosed, is rounded and rounded towers, which are as high as three hundred steps and two cannon balls Power is reserved, city and gates are reserved. »
“Messi Olivier”, a French politician and doctor, then will predict the future of Tehran and predict the greatness of Tehran today. And in other words, it predicts:
“Despite the many efforts Mr. Mohammad Shah has done to rescue the city population, and the support and donations from businesses and traders, especially those who have recently migrated to Tehran, are still living in the city, the population is still The date we arrived (1211 AH) was not more than fifteen thousand. The demise of the treacherous people, who were about three thousand people, was considered by this population. It would seem that if the successors of Mr. Mohammad Shah were to reign in this city, the city would become enormous. “
The weather in Tehran is not healthy
“Masio Olivier” refers to the weather in Tehran and points to the warmth of the air and its unhealthy weather, and counts the temperature in the summer of 27-30 degrees. We read the rest of his memories:
“The weather in Tehran is not healthy. In late summer, there are dangerous diseases, fever and biliary shivering that continue until mid-winter. In summer, other than people who are forced to stop in Tehran because of the necessity of work or necessary work, or lack of resources and poverty prevent them from moving, they will not stay in the city from Tehran until late fall, which is the worst of times. Being outside the city and then returning to the city again. The temperature and temperature in Tehran are 27 to 28 degrees, and the north wind, which runs from the Caspian Sea during the summer and moderates the air, is cut off in June and August. Or it is wind, eastern or western, although it rarely happens, but in the case of east or west, the temperature reaches 29 to 30 degrees. »
Water in Tehran has a flavor of lukewarm water!
“Masio Olivier” then refers to the unhealthy and heavy water of Tehran:
“In addition to the lack of air, it is bad water that has the flavor of the lagoon. The water in Tehran is all coming from the mountain and it is abundant that Tehran’s water scent is due to the fact that it does not erase the channels of the aqueducts. Iranians are very pleased to use ice, so they have glaciers in all cities, and in the summer ice is abundant and they sell cheaply. Iranians eat ice like sugar and candy. “
Free entry, no exit
Masiw al-Yawiya then mentions the rules of departure from Tehran: “Because in Tehran, many individuals, tribal leaders and tribal elders, are held hostage to Mohammad Khan Qajar, who have the right to withdraw from the capital They would not have any obstacle to enter Tehran, but everyone who wanted to go outside the gate should be given special permission from the ruler of the city. »
The arrival of Mr. Mohammad Shah in Tehran
“Masiyvoliviya” then refers to the appointment of Agha Mohammad Khan to Tehran, “and this time coincides with his return from Khorasan and the confiscation of rare jewelry.
On the fourteenth day, the mansion was filled with water and swept away, which would bring the Shah. The fifteenth day of the king did not come, because it was not Sa’d’s time. Two days delayed. All Iranians from the big and the small, the ignorant world do not do anything without the time of Sa’d’s watch.
On the twelfth day of the king’s arrival in the city, they announced their entrance ceremonies by firing the ball; two hours before noon they landed in the second mansion; they had many beautiful jewelry, especially his jeweled arm, some of them Survivors of Karim Khan Zand were taken, and some of them came from Naberee Nader Shah, who had been on this trip. ”
“Masiwouliyyeh” then writes about the public opinion of the people of Iran: “The truth is that Mr. Mohammad Khan has established an order, the safety of roads, caravans and passengers have been secured by the bandits and is apparently appealing throughout the territory of the country of peace. But can these rigors persist? From the first step we introduced to Iran, we saw that in Kermanshahan, Hamedan, and in Tehran, people repeatedly in the streets and markets were severely cruel and cruel to the Shah, and the more we stopped in Iran and the more we became aware. On our surprise and surprise, how could a person such as Aqa Muhammad Khan, who at the age of twelve and was kept under guard and forcibly until the age of forty years, and who is a homeless person, without any spiritual virtue and physical strength, can reach the monarchy? ” They have been starved and their people are considered humiliated and repeatedly defeated their enemies and greed, greed, pride and brutality. He has caused no one to be sympathetic to him, which miracle has brought him to the throne? ”
while at the very beginning of the reign of Khajeh Tajdar, Tehran was in the process of development and development, there was no more village than Shiraz and the magnificent palaces that he had spent under the sway of his court in Karim Khan. For the Khan Qajar, who had an illiterate mood and was not at the forefront, and sometimes spent his life behind the horse and in battlefields, it was no different from where to stay and where to sleep. The next Qajar kings, who had palaces and palaces, lived in a very simple manner according to their political temperament.
In short, at the time of the founder of the Qajar dynasty, Tehran was about 15,000 and the city bounded north to the street later called Sepah, east of Naser Khosrow Street, west to Jalilabad Street, and south to Bouzarjemahari Street. Became
Khajeh Tajdar was killed at the height of power and victory.
On the dawn of the 12th day, 1211 AH, when Khajeh Tajdar was sleeping in his victorious army camp at one of the fortresses captured in the city of Shushi (Georgia), three of his nephews, whom he faced the night before, were the king promised them death had entered the dormitory Agha Mohammad Khan and the sword he killed, as fifty-one years before that commanders her rare sleeping pleasantly surprised, head of Mt. Were separated.
Mr. Mohammad Khan and Nader Shah had the same fate, with the difference that the Afsharid dynasty, after Nadir Shah’s death, was soon extinct, but the Qajar dynasty was about 100 years old, and the six King of the Qajar dynasty sat on the throne.
“Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar” and his successor, Fath Ali Shah, who was his nephew, were the last of the most traditional kings of Iran who were already seizing the sword in front of them, after which the kings settled and did not fight.
Also, Agha Muhammad Khan and Fath Ali Shah were the last kings who reigned without the approval of foreigners. Until these two kingdoms, the seizure of the throne and the crown of Persia depended on the throne and sword of the claimants of the monarchy, but after that, the fate of power and rule was no longer in the battlefields, and it was not possible to reach the throne and crown without the consent of the Russians and the British.
Tehran Fath Ali Shah
The messengers of Napoleon Bonaparte, who came to Iran during Fathali Shah Qajar, wrote the city’s population of seventy people. One of the British diplomats who came to Tehran 196 years ago mentioned the length of the fence in Tehran 5.3 miles to 5 miles, he writes:
“Tehran has 6 goals. Towards the door, tile, and other animals on the tiles ”
And he writes about Tehran’s mansion and mansion:
“Tehran’s houses are not very good and are often built with crude clay. The only remarkable building is the Shah mosque, which is unfinished. The fights say that there are 150 innones and the same number in Tehran. This city has two royal summer mansions, one of the Qajar palaces, and the other is the Palace of the Negarestan, which are engaged in it ”
An English tourist, Sir Robert Krapperter, who visited Tehran from 1817 to 1829, writes:
“Half a century ago, it seemed hard to make Tehran the capital of Iran.” Tehran had long been a dark and vague position until the sheet returned and became a royal residence. Tehran is in a central location between the northwestern state bordered by Georgia and the eastern province of Persia, which has always been abducted by Turkmen, and the residence of the frustrated Afghan allies. In fact, for the new election, Mr. Mohammad Khan was unable to find a better place than Tehran. Tehran is surrounded by a deep gut with four gates. The south gate goes to Isfahan and the northwest gate to Tabriz. In front of each gate, 200 yards (one yards 4.91 cm) is a circular tower protected by guttering. These fortifications are built for the siege of the enemy and fortification, and leaving the gates is completely taken care of above these buildings.
The streets of Tehran are tight and full of mud and soil. Camels, mules and donkeys, and possibly one or two royal monarchs, constantly go there and block the streets.
From Qazvin’s gate to Tehran you will see a large open space full of deep and wide holes or, in other words, ditches that are buried in the ground. Around these pits there are several gaps in underground houses. »
Fath Ali-Shahi buildings in Tehran
The Shah’s mosque, the buildings of Baghshah, the Tower of Nash, the Palace of the Negarestan, the Palace of Lalezar and the palace of Niavaran are the works of the era of Fath Ali Shah. Today, all of them are destroyed except the mosque of Shah and the palace of Niavaran. In the time of Fath Ali Shah, major changes took place in Tehran, and if the long wars of Iran and Russia were not compensated, Fath Ali Shah might have had the opportunity to make Tehran look more beautiful and broader. Fath Ali Shah died in 1250 AD (168 years ago) at the age of seventy after 39 years of reign.
If Napoleon had won and Fath Ali Shah, who was his ally, had contributed to his conquests, today history had another judgment about him, but our people consider him responsible for the loss of the Caucasus. Fath Ali Shah, though he was a brave and swindler young man, who stepped into his uncle’s ward, but when he came to the kingdom, he became comfortable and history does not remember him as good.
Tehran Mohammad Shahi
Fath Ali Shah Qajar, one year before his death, had lost his brave child Abbas Mirza. However, he succeeded his successor in honor of his successors in service and in recognition of his hopes during the wars of Iran and Russia, his son Mohammad Mirza was appointed as a vicegerent and sent to Tabriz. Since then, Tabriz has become a ruler and this tradition has remained until the end of the Qajar monarchy.
“When the news of the death of Abbas Mirza came to Tehran, Allah Yarkhan Asif al-Dawlah, with the eyes of Griyan, while tears from his virtues, gave this news to the Shah and said:” Al-Qaeda Allah Shah has a tribal descent in each province. … “And this was a reference to the fifty-nine sons of the king. Fath Ali Shah referred to the truth in response to Asiful Dawlah’s consolation and said:
“Allahyar Khan, you did not fair that you said that in any province I have a nobleman, you should have laughed after the seventy years and forty years of reign, you will go from a descendant world without interchange.” Fath Ali Shah, although some of his children were really decent and worthy , Mohammad Mizraz chose the son of Abbas Mirza to be a prince and this was preceded by an imminent death for a series of insurrections and insurrections throughout Iran that day.
arena and in the strength of the arm and the sword, but the Turkmenchai contract imposed conditions which later became the determinant of foreign policy. Unless they agree to the Russians and the British, no royal claimant can become the king of Iran. Because of this inferno, after the death of Fath Ali Shah, one of the king’s uncles reigned in every corner of the country. Even one of them sat down in Tehran with his coin, but all of these efforts were futile, and finally Mohsshah came to Tehran under the auspices of the Russian and British ministers, and the uncle of the monarchy, who still did not believe in political developments, came from Fears of life escaped and they were dying around the world. We know that one of the provisions of the Turkmenchai agreement was to guarantee the reign of Iran in the descendants of Abas Mirza, and that during the Qajar dynasty, Russia remained loyal to this commitment. If the First World War had not come and Russia had not collapsed, “Reza Khan” would never have succeeded in dispossession of the Qajar and the reign of Iran.
The turbulent situation of Iran during the fourteenth anniversary of Mohammad Shah was an obstacle to the development of Tehran and the development and development of Tehran. Haji Mirza Aghasi, the Chancellor of Dervish, was interested in digging new quarries and erecting the ruined villages. The capital of Iran did not develop significantly in this period. The destiny was to renovate the capital after the death of Mohammad Shah in the hands of his son Nasir al-Din Shah.
Tehran Naseri Circle
The fiftieth anniversary of the reign of Naser-al-Din Shah Qajar (1264-1313 AH) is considered to be the period of extensive development and expansion of the Iranian capital. If the valuable works of that period were not destroyed, today Tehran was one of the most beautiful and beautiful cities of the East. Since the works of the Nasserite period are numerous, we will inevitably list some of them.
One of the buildings of the Nazareth period is the Dar Al-Fonoun school building. The school was inspired by Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir, but Amir was not alive at the opening ceremony, and Nasser-al-Din Shah was not even 22 years old when attending the opening ceremony. The Dar al-Fonoun mansion, which is still part of it, was a vast area that covered almost the entire southern side of Imam Khomeini’s square, and was so wide that it was used for sports and maneuvers of infantry and artillery. At the outset, the establishment of this school was based on the establishment of a military medical school, but later on, a number of disciplines were added to it.
The construction of new palaces and renovation of the Niavaran palace
In the eleventh year of the “Nazareth” ceremony, a French brigadier who was a Darulfonon artillery teacher, provided Tehran with a map that was published at the same time. This map, which is based on it, indicates that 143 years ago the capital’s territory was located inside of your two castles. The first castle was pulled around the city and it was three kilometers long. The second castle was dedicated to the protection of the royal palaces, the walls of the second castle and the ditch around it, if necessary, separated the city from the Ork site and the Shah’s residence. If the enemy could have penetrated into the city, the second fence and the second barrage with the ditch Around it, the royal palaces were protected from the invasion of the enemy.
The day when Tehran became a dormitory
In the twentieth year of the reign of Nasser-al-Din Shah, a great deal changed in the structure of the capital, and Tehran developed from the Shamiran gate, which entered the entrance to Pamir, as much as 1,600 zar each (104 cm), and on the other hand, it was enlarged to 1,000 zeros. The oversight of the plans for the modernization of Tehran by the Shah was assigned to Mirza Yusuf Mostofi al-Mamalek, the Chief of the Supreme Shah. Mostofi al-Mmalik was a respectable and respectable Darwish man, and the king and his elders called him “Hazrat Agha”. Later, Mirza Hassan, who was his son, was nicknamed the father of his father, and repeatedly became minister and prime minister. The ceremony for the commencement of the modernization of Tehran was held with special ceremonies, and Nasser al-Din Shah, personally, with the silver hat in his hand, threw the first claw. From that very day, Tehran was called “Dar al-Khalafeh Nasseri”. With the implementation of Tehran’s renovation plan, all of Tehran’s towers, ramparts and defenses strengthened Fath Ali Shahi and filled the deep gully of the city. The distance from the city, which was not more than three kilometers, increased to nineteen kilometers. The new ditch of Tehran made octagonal patches of imitation of the Parisian moat. In the course of this program, in the last decade of the reign of Nasser-al-Din Shah, they surveyed the Nasiri dynasty, and it turned out that the “gate of government”, which was the northernmost part of the city, had a height difference with “Khan Abad” in the south of the city, 82 degrees, and made new Due to this map.
In the last years of the 50-year-old Nasseri, the distance from Tehran’s city environment was 22 kilometers and had twelve gates. All these gates were destroyed in the first decade of the reign of Reza Khan, on the pretext of breaking down the streets of the capital and modernizing the city. One of the diplomats residing in Tehran, Ahmed Amin, who was affiliated with the Ottoman Empire in the court of Tehran, wrote in his report, which relates to Lunar 1311, two years before the assassination of Nasir al-Din Shah, Qajar:
“Tehran has a population of more than 250 thousand people in the eastern plain area of 2500 square kilometers. It is warm, but healthy. The view of the houses is all-round, and this is why the city’s lush landscape is sober. The streets of Tehran are tight and unordered.
Tehran is surrounded by a mud bath, and a gutter at a depth of 15 meters protects this barrow. Tehran has several gates and customs officers at these gates receive customs duties. In Tehran, most of the buildings have been built with bricks, and they only bricks in the four corners of the door and windows. The capital of Iran is dehydrated and the qanats, which are expensive to dig up, are in the possession of the rich. The duct of running water inside the city, unlike outside the city, is not covered, and people around the waters are washing clothes and water from the same polluted water is filled. Baths in Iran have a varietal, whose water changes late and does not have a special milk and dock.
The rich and the ministers, with the six-assault halls and the tea and hookah service that they brought, go to great perfection in the city. »
Other works of Naseri’s covenant
Other works of this covenant are “The Palace of Eshtakadabad”. In the 27th year of the reign of Nasser-al-Din Shah, the shrine of Ashourath and Qasran was established, and the shah was planted with four hands of the tree. Of the other works of this period is the “Palace of Yaghoub”, which was built in the thirty-ninth year of the reign of Nasser-al-Din Shah and includes the palace and royal royal palace. The monument of Sultan Abad is one of the works of this period, which includes the monastery and the tower of the dormitory. This building belongs to the twelfth year of the reign.
The garden of ‘Ash’Abad’ was completed four years before the Shah’s death and the ‘Amiryah Palace’, where Kamran Mirza, the son of Shah and al-Saltanah, lived from the works of the same period, which was later transferred to the Officer College.
The mosque and school of Sepahsalar were also founded on the ninth year of the Nasiriyah. This mosque and school are from the endowment of Mirza Hussein Khan Sepahsalar, Chancellor of Nasser-al-Din Shah. In the construction of this magnificent building, three of the most famous traditional Iranian architects participated. Of the other memorials of this route is Abdu’l-Azim, which was used seven years before the death of Nasser-al-Din Shah and its privilege belonged to a Belgian company. The railroad was demolished about forty years ago. The Tehran horseriding tram was also deployed by the Belgian company, which was demolished about sixty years ago due to new streets and buses, and the prevalence of riding cars and, of course, the speed of a tram.
The other works of Naseri’s covenant can be summarized as follows:
Museum Room: This building is located on the northern side of the Golestan Garden. Naser-al-Din Shah built this building to preserve old works and precious objects. In 1290 AH, they destroyed the “Diamond Hall”, which was the works of Fath Ali Shahi, and built the museum and basement room, which, thankfully, still remains. The “Hall of the Mirror” was also built in the same place. This hall is one of the most valuable works of Haji Abolhassan Sani’almolk, the architectural masterpiece of the Nazareth period. The Berylian Hall was built at the former site of the Crystal Hall, which was made up of Fath Ali-Shahi buildings, and its destruction and restoration was due to the erosion of the building.
In the last years of the life of Naser-al-Din Shah, “Abysh Palace” was built in the southwest corner of the Golestan Palace, and its construction date is 1308 AH. Due to the white color of its exterior, it is called the palace. The motive behind the castle was that Sultan Abdul Hamid, the Ottoman emperor, had sent many gifts, including the famous Louis XVI and Louis XVI’s, and valuable curtains and precious rugs for Nasereddin Shah, and since all the palaces were filled with precious objects, this palace was to hold the gifts of the Ottoman ruler Was made.
Gallery mansion: At the end of the reign of Nasser-aldi Shah, on the western side of the Ark was built a shrine, and a large number of new and old Persian and Persian paintings were kept there. 25 beautiful and beautiful chalets hung from the ceiling of this magnificent gallery.
The current artillery field is also from the works of the Nazareth era. The explanation was that before the extensive modernization of Tehran in 1284, a field of artillery was in front of the royal palace in the Ork Square. When Tehran developed and lands outside the Ork Abad area, the current site was constructed as two-story artillery and transferred the balls in front of the Ork court. In the two-story buildings around the field, the ground floor was the place where the cannons were kept, and the upper floors of the life of the gunners. Since the construction of the artillery field, 134 years have passed, during which time the building of this field has been changed several times. Today, the works of old buildings of Naseri, Mozaffari and Reza Khani are not present in this field, and everything is destroyed and destroyed. The old artillery field had four gates: the eastern gate was entrance to the Lalezar Avenue, the south east gate was Naserieh Street 1st, and the west gate, on the entrance to Alaoddoleh Street (today’s Ferdowsi), was the gate southwest of the entrance to the Bab Homayoun Street and royal palaces.
Tehran Mozafari Ave.
When the Nasser al-Din Shah assassination scribe arrived in Tabriz, and Mozafar al-Din Mirza, the troubled ruler, read the message of condolences and congratulations to the Grand Duchess of his father. She was 45 years old. Her mandate lasted for forty years, and the life of Tabrizi of Tabriz was over from the long life of the Shah. The dream of a crown prince, going to Tehran and taking away all the important officials of the golden sleeping state of this far-away power. When Mozafar al-Din Mirza came to the reign, the treasury was empty, but the government was not in debt. But the new king did not have his father in the kingdom and his kingdom, and the courtiers were not afraid of him. Therefore, the new ruler of his country, who was surrounded by him and who had come to Tehran after forty years of deprivation, handed over to the treasury of the country, Because the treasury was empty and borrowed from foreigners, and all of those loans with high interests and independence conditions, were limited to traveling by the air and the desires of the Shah’s neighbors, it is not surprising that during the period of Mozaffaroddin Shah in Imran and Abadan The capital does not have any effect. He was the only one who created and important, Farah Abad’s palace, which he built and built, and chose his name.
Altogether, during the ten-year period of the reign of Mozaffaroddin Shah, the construction and development of the capital did not work and the government’s actions were limited to solving the city’s problems, such as dilapidated qanats and solving the problems, and did not go beyond that, and if Rijali Due to the fact that Māyir al-Mamalik, in the scope of his real estate, devoted himself to extraordinary settlements and produced varieties of vegetable and fruit plants in Tehran and built a garden such as paradise, because they were within their own domain and were not used by the public, such measures One can not consider a person in the city’s development and redevelopment, during the era of this king, the eyes of the people were opened. More ties to the Farhangian, more newspapers, new education and new schools of practice, cars and ordinary phones, and in science politics, Russian and British competition peaked to a military confrontation, and Britain Who saw himself defeated by the Russians, would have become constitutional in favor of the constitutionalists, and he also obtained the necessary privileges from his political rival. These two great powers, in accordance with the treaty that became known as the 1907 treaty, divided Iran between them, the north From the Russian and the South of that English, a free zone, most of which was desert, was a gap between the two penetration zones, seemingly independent and At the disposal of the Iranian government.
In a situation where two colonial governments were created together and did not speak of meaningful development in the situation when the Iranian government was under heavy debt leverage, and if some of the patriotic friends were interested in doing so, The fact that Nasser al-Din Shah had made his 50-year reign was not meant to be spent on civilization, was due to lack of care for destruction and destruction. The two-year period of the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah, who was all over the war and insurrection and bloodshed, had left the treasury so bad that you were juicy, because of the backwardness of his wake, he went to the king, and the king stayed at bedtime and lunch. It’s also natural for someone not to think about it. At the end of 1327 AH, when Mohammad Ali Shah was expelled and exiled, and the constitutional revolutionary government came to power, the disagreement between the leaders of the constitution and the divisions of the Majles, the insecurity and the high cost, and the thousand suffering caused by the revolution, the possibility of a small step in The capital’s development and development plan would not be removed. When Ahmad Shah reached the age of adulthood, a few days after his crown, while the walls of the capital sank in Azin, and the crowning ceremonies were still not over, the First World War began. Iran declared a neutrality, but the ears of the worlds were not owed. A nation that is weak and defenseless does not have the right to remain neutral. During these days, war and famine swept across Iran, and perhaps the fathers, whose sons, died of hunger before them.
Freedom, war, famine, death, and illnesses in the home, not during the war, but years later, did not allow the thought of the expansion of the capital to anyone. The war ended. The tsarist Russia collapsed, Germany and Ottoman defeated and England won. But the game was not finished yet, and the security of the borders of India was in any case known, and they knew Iran from the late Indian gateway. Therefore, the winner of the war was to bring Iran to India, as well as to India, and Vosuq al-Dawlah was brought to work. Sayyid Ziauddin Tabataba’i, the director of the newspaper Raad, defended the colonial contract of 1919. The nation resisted and the British settled back, but not forever. The drunken nation was the victory of Sayyid Zia, who was the prime minister for chestnut chest for England, not by the command of the Shah but by a coup and a decree that was later imposed by British pressure on the last Qajar king. Barry, Seyyed The first thing Kurd promised to reform and the good news of the development and development in the capital. It was not a means for bad manifestation. A lot of screenwriting was done. One day you saw them on the street of Laleh Zar and the same night on the same street, a light was lit.
How many days later did the workers work to ruin the north of the artillery shell? What is going on? The new municipality building is being built. What kind of slabs and potholes are there for them and where are the marshmallows of these soils and what is this all roller machine? They make the street. What are the officials of the municipality for? To control the health of the people of the capital. Why do they paint the shops in the wall and why they are green? The order is headed by Alusra, and any business that he does not obey is in charge of Reza Khan. Why do they write Latin writing on the walls and in the city? Because the government is the rule of coup and the pawns must be shortened. While all these popular shows were for the coming of the Farms, not their going. Anyway, for any reason, in the three-month government of Seyyed Zia, the municipality was striking and the foundation stone of the new municipality was laid, and the election of the mayor of Tehran was only available to the Minister of Agriculture. Seyyed Zia, who was radicalized, consumed its history, and Reza Khan was more cautious and prominent. His star was shining. The coup philosophy was the creation of a powerful government that, under the pressure of a police state, could quietly enforce the same articles and provisions of the 1919 Iran-UK Agreement, in the form of independence. Ahmad Shah was an obstacle to work and a barrier, the republic’s reputation began, and urban reform and civilian operations ensured the legitimacy of the coup. New tolls increased the city’s revenue, the streets were quickly digested, power wires quickly connected to the city’s districts, regardless of the type of wiring, swept the roads around the capital, and the city’s cleanliness improved slightly over time. And, in spite of all these things being unplanned and dramatic, Tehran, with the same old skeletons and tight streets, came out of old trash. To provoke the puppetry soldiers of Reza Khan, they once became the Republican nation. The clergy and those intellectuals who saw it on the coin disagreed, and once the sounds went down and it did not become clear that the hot and burning Republican fever seemed cold overnight?
However, the tenor of reform and development work, which was the fulfillment of Reza Khan’s commitments, was getting hotter and continued after his reign. The creation of roads, railways, public roads, new state-owned buildings, new streets during a twenty-year dictatorial government followed a steady and irreversible principle, and this was followed by a remarkable move by Nasser al-Din Shah, the first ever urban action Whatever the fact that modernizing was in the course of the Nazarite, but in the midst of the imperial dynasties that was firmly instilled in innovation and modernity, there was a damnation, and, with great regret, during the twenty years of the dictatorship of Reza Khani, the cultural heritage was two hundred The capital of the country was completely destroyed and only mosques and a number of souls whose sanctity and sanctity prevented them from doing so. The weather was safe from ruin.
A professor of history in this historical period has the following theoretical background: “I know that he brought Iran political stability, security, schools, universities and electricity, but whenever I recall that he was thinking political thought, the idea of freedom and freedom of speech and pen He was taken from the Iranian people and raped the property of the people and sewed his mouths and trained and flattered people and brought people to the soil and blood and stored money in foreign banks and founded the principles of espionage and arrested the newspaper and He threw the Iranians in jail, incontinently in my heart: “I would never have come!”
With the brutal attack of the Allies on Iran in September 1320, poverty, illness, insecurity and turmoil again swept Iran’s capital and all the construction work was shut down and stopped, and everyone was thinking about the bread of the night, and after the end of the war, the Azarbayjan And political instability in the aftermath of the postwar government did not allow them to pay attention to developmental work or to clean the city. The Sanglag neighborhood, which had ruined it for renovation, was a place for roaming stray dogs, and the smell of wreckage on ruins in the corners of the city was disturbed by passers-by-passers. The lack of security in the cities caused the population of the cities to invade Tehran, and the capital of Iran became more and more day by day. The land reform was also ridiculed in the last round, turning Tehran into an inert city and gateway with an unsustainable expansion of traffic, which remained at the hands of the government with all its problems. When the Islamic Revolution destroyed the Shah, in the midst of all the hardships left over from the past, Tehran was a deadlock and an insoluble puzzle, and nobody hoped to find a solution to the untamed problems of the capital. To be practiced.
The 8-year-old war was also imposed on the cause, and the invasion of war-torn cities brought the capital to the point where the Tehranians said with dismay and regret: Tehran is no longer a place of life! And a group of experts also believed that the capital should be moved to another place as soon as possible. The story of Tehran’s past is coming to an end, but another story begins that is the story of Tehran today. However, before we say goodbye to the past, it is sufficient that we once again see the sign between them in place of the feet and the ancestors, and see how the way they went in the alleys, streets and gardens of Tehran, finally where Led
The historical fact is that both in Iran and in the world there is less a capital that has a short life like Tehran, or because Tehran is young. It has not been a long time for the capital of an old country where the bed and cradle is one of the brightest civilizations in the country. Another fact is that even in these two hundred years, Tehran has had less opportunity and leisure to reach its own condition. Tehran became the capital of the Qajar kings, and we know that they were never a powerful sultan to create such a security in the country that would lead to people’s confidence and development and prosperity. The Qajar kings, if they also had the opportunity to think about building and upgrading, built a maximum of several other palaces. The people were “righteous” and not the “citizen” of the city and the whole country, the king’s absolute property, not the common land of all Iranians.
Barry, Tehran is relatively young in comparison to many ancient cities of Iran. A seedlings that grow up very quickly and have not been pruned. Not only Tehran, but all of what today are the manifestations and symbols of the new civilization, and Tehran has them, is not a long history.
Source: Tehran Municipality